Sunday, July 29, 2007

Modernism and Magic Realism

Britannica Blog - July 27th, 2007
Magic Realism, 1950s–1990s. Latin American writings characterized by fantastic events, circumstances, and miracles in otherwise ordinary surroundings: Jorge Luis Borges, “Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius” (1941); Gabriel García Márquez, Cien años de soledad (1967).
Modernism, 1900s–1930s. A diverse multinational movement, with epicenters in Paris and London, that developed a new emphasis on the rhythms and internal structures of language and on the disillusioning realities of 20th-century life. It took a variety of forms at different times in various countries.
Austria and Germany, 1910s–1930s. Modernist authors uneasily accepted cosmopolitanism in a time of economic and social upheaval: Franz Kafka, Der Prozess (1915); Thomas Mann, Der Zauberberg (1924).
Denmark, 1950s–1960s. Experimentation came after World War II: Klaus Rifbjerg, Konfrontation: Digte (1960).
England and Ireland, 1910s–1930s. Modernist characteristics included requiring the reader to construct meaning out of fragments, allowing form to create content, and using imagery to fashion impressionistic collages: T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land (1922); James Joyce, Ulysses (1922); Ezra Pound, The Cantos (1917–1970); Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (1927).
France, 1900s–1930s. French modernism was accompanied by the rise of the socialist movement, the appearance of anarchists in trade unions, and radical changes in the visual arts: Marcel Proust, A la recherché du temps perdu (1913–1927).
Italy, 1900s–1950s. Modernists rebelled against traditional sentimentality in favor of simplified language and themes: Eugenio Montale, Ossi di seppia (1916); Luigi Pirandello, Sei personaggi in cerca d’auture (1921); Ignazio Silone, Pane e vino (1937); Italo Svevo, La coscienza di Zeno (1923).
Latin America, 1880–1910s. Latin American and Spanish modernists stressed individuality of expression and used metaphorical language, mannered sentiment, and nostalgia: Rubén Darío, Cantos de vida y esperanza (1905); Juan Ramón Jiménez, Platero y yo (1914).
Russia, 1900s–1930s. Stylistic innovation was equated with revolution and the desire for a new society: Sergei Esenin, Pugachyov (1922).
Sweden, 1940s. Swedish modernists were influenced by the German expressionists and French symbolists: Gunnar Ekelöf, Sent på jorden (1932).
United States, 1910s–1930s. American modernists experimented with psychological fiction and intellectual inquiry: William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury (1929); Wallace Stevens, Ideas of Order (1935).

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